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Lung Cancer

In keyhole surgery (or minimally invasive surgery) which can be done in cases of very small, early, non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), the surgeon makes one or a number of small incisions on the side of the chest. A thoracoscope — a long, bendy tube connected to a fibre optic camera — shows the surgeon the inside of the chest. He then performs the cancer removal through the other incisions58.

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    Lobectomy (or the removal of one lobe)59

    The lungs are divided into sections called lobes. There are two lobes in the left lung and three in the right lung. Lobectomy means the removal of one lobe of the lung. The doctor will recommend a lobectomy if the cancer is contained within one lobe of the lung. Lobectomies are the most common surgery for lung cancer.

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    Bilobectomy (or the removal of two lobes)59

    This is a surgery to remove two lobes of the lung.

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    Pneumonectomy (the removal of a whole lung)59

    This surgery is necessary if the cancer is in the center of the lung and involves all three lobes in the right lung or both lobes in the left.

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    Segmentectomy or Wedge resection59

    A segmentectomy or wedge resection is the removal of a part of one of the lobes of the lung.

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    Pulmonary sleeve resection59

    This is a circumferential excision of a part of the bronchus and/or pulmonary vessels during lung parenchyma resection while preserving the uninvolved portions of the lung.

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    Lymphadenectomy (or removal of lymph nodes)54

    Regional lymph node dissection is done for histopathological examination to ascertain the spread of lung cancer to the surrounding lymph nodes. If the lymph nodes contain cancer cells, chemotherapy following surgery is usually recommended.

Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Surgery usually forms part of the treatment plan for most women with breast cancer. The type of surgery you may get is determined by cancer size, the number of tumors, where it is located in the breast, the size of your breasts and your personal preferences60.

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    Lumpectomy (or breast-conserving surgery)61

    This is done to remove the lump in the breast and nearby lymph nodes to determine if the cancer has spread. Radiotherapy is usually given following a lumpectomy.

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    The entire breast and nearby lymph nodes are removed in a mastectomy.

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    Breast reconstruction60

    You may choose to have breast reconstruction following a mastectomy and sometimes, lumpectomy. This can be done at the same time as breast cancer surgery (immediate reconstruction) or at a later time (delayed reconstruction).

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    Lymph node removal39

    Lymph nodes are removed to find out the extent of the cancer (how big and where it has spread). Sentinal lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) are two main types of surgery to remove lymph nodes.

For more information, please click here for other lung cancer treatment types and here for other triple-negative breast cancer treatment types.